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Utafiti Wawaumbua Walaghai wa Zao la Korosho

 Korosho haiharibiki kwa kukaa ghalani zaidi ya mwaka

Na Mwandishi Wetu –  Mtwara

Kaimu Mkurugenzi wa Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Kilimo Tanzania (TARI) Dkt.  Fortunatus  Kapinga  amesema kuwa  zao la korosho lina uwezo wa kukaa zaidi ya mwaka mmoja ghalani  bila kuharibika  na  korosho hiyo inapopelekwa sokoni inakuwa na ubora uleule unaotakiwa katika soko.

Dkt  Kapinga amesema hayo alipohojiwa na  Idara ya Habari (Maelezo) ofisini kwake  katika  kituo cha TARI  Naliendelle, Mtwara , ambapo alisisitiza kuwa hakuna ukweli wowote  kwa baadhi ya watu hususan wanunuzi wa korosho wanaowaambia wakulima  kuwa korosho inapo kaa ghalani zaidi ya miezi sita inakuwa imeharibika au haina thamani tena ya kuuzwa.

“Kila mara kuna wajibu wa kukumbuka usithibitishe kitu kama huna utafiti wowote ulioufanya kwa mfano halisi ni hapa TARI korosho tunayoitumia kubangua katika kiwanda chetu kwa sasa na kutengeneza bidhaa mbalimbali imevunwa mwaka wa fedha 2018/19 haina tofauti yeyote na korosho iliyovunwa 2019/2020 lakini kuna mambo ya msingi lazima mkulima azingatie baada ya kuvuna, kabla ya kupeleka ghalani  na inapokuwa ghalani”,amesema Dkt Kapinga.

Akieleza sababu za korosho kuharibika, amesema kuwa ni pamoja na kutokauka kufikia chini ya asilimia 10 ya ukavu (moisture content) mara baada ya kuvunwa na kuanikwa, kwa kuwa inapokuwa na unyevunyevu inaruhusu baadhi ya wadudu kupenya na kufanya uharibifu au korosho kuvunda, sababu nyingine ameitaja kuwa kuvuna korosho na kuihifadhi sakafuni au kugusa ukuta, hivyo kusababisha uwezekano mkubwa wa kuharibika pamoja na kuhifadhi katika nyumba inayovuja au ambayo haina maeneo ya kupitisha hewa vizuri. Aidha amesema kuwa, suala la kutozingatia vifungashio vizuri ambavyo ni magunia pia ni sababu ya kufanya korosho ziharibike maana yanaruhusu hewa kupita. Amefafanua kuwa ili kupata korosho bora ni budi  magunia hayo yawekwe juu ya vichanja.

“Taasisi ya Utafiti hapa Naliendele tuna kiwanda chetu ambacho tunatengeneza bidhaa mbalimbali ikiwemo korosho za kutafuna, maziwa ya korosho, siagi, cashewnuts shake inayochanganywa na tende, chapati za korosho, mikate, maandazi na korosho za chocolate. Pia, tunatengeneza vinywaji kutokana na mabibo au tunda la korosho kama vile juice ya mabibo yenye vitamin C kwa wingi, wine, na sasa tunaendelea na utafiti wa kuzalisha ethanol”, amesema Dkt. Kapinga.

 Akielezea uzalishaji wa bidhaa zitokanazo na mabibo, amesema kuwa una manufaa makubwa na ni kosa kuyaacha mabibo yaharibike. Ametoa mfano kuwa, “kilo moja ya korosho inazalisha kilo tisa za mabibo, ambayo yanaweza kutengeneza juice lita 6.3 na kuuzwa shilingi 4,500 kwa wastani ukilinganisha na ya korosho ambayo kilo moja ni kati ya 1,500 bei ikiwa chini  hadi kufikia 4,000 bei inapokuwa nzuri hivyo utaona ni jinsi gani tunakosa fedha nyingi kutokana na kutoyaongeza thamani mabibo”, amefafanua, Dkt. Kapinga.

Amebainisha kuwa iwapo mkulima ataamua kutengeneza mvinyo (wine) uwiano ni kila kilo moja ya mabibo ni lita moja ya wine, hivyo kilo tisa za mabibo mkulima atapata lita tisa za mvinyo na kila lita moja ya mvinyo inauzwa shilingi 8.500 kwa bei ya kiwandani hapa kwetu mnunuzi atatoa gharama ya kila lita pamoja na kifungashio,  mfano shilingi 2,000 bado atakuwa na faida ya shilingi 6,000.

“Pia, korosho inaweza kuzalisha vitakasa mikono kutokana na uzalishaji wa Ethanol  itokanayo na mabibo hayo hayo, kilo moja ya mabibo mpaka sasa tumethibitisha inatoa kimiminika cha ethanol, (mls) 210, ambayo ina asilimia 70 na kwa sasa tupo kwenye utafiti zaidi mpaka ifikishe mls asilimia 95 kwenda juu utafiti huo utakapo kamilika umma utafahamishwa na kuongeza idadi ya bidhaa zinazozalishwa kutokana na mabibo”, amesema Dkt. Kapinga

Ameendelea kusema kuwa kumekuwa na upotoshwaji, kusema iwapo korosho itazalishwa nyingi itauzwa wapi?, “Nadhani hii sio sahihi kwa kuwa tumeamua kuwa na Tanzania ya viwanda hivyo hatuna budi kuzalisha korosho kwa wingi na kuacha kutegemea korosho za kutafuna tu badala yake tuzalishe bidhaa zote zitokanazo na korosho na mabibo”.

Vile vile mti wa korosho ni rafiki wa mazingira kwa kuzalisha nishati ya kuni, ikiwa ni pamoja na kivuli kwa wanyama ambapo shamba la mikorosho linaruhusu wanyama kuchungwa ndani ya shamba bila kuharibu mazingira yake na kuongeza mbolea ambayo inahitajika na mti wa mkorosho. Aidha, chanzo kizuri cha kustawisha miti na kusababisha mvua kupatikana kutokana na kuwa na hali ya misitu.

Naye Mratibu wa Utafiti na Ubunifu wa korosho Dkt Geradina Mzena  amesema kuwa TARI Naliendele imegundua aina 54 za mbegu za korosho bora zenye sifa ya kuvumilia magonjwa na kuzalisha korosho nyingi kwa mti, zinavumilia ukame, ambapo uzalishaji wa mbegu milioni 10 unaendelea kila mwaka. Mbegu hizi zinafaa kupandwa katika mikoa 20 iliyopendekezwa Tanzania ambayo ni Mtwara, Ruvuma, Lindi, Pwani, Singida, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Katavi, Kilimanjaro, Kigoma, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Manyara, Morogoro, Mbeya, Songwe, Rukwa, Tabora na Tanga.

“TARI, inatoa wito kwa Watanzania kuthamini zao la korosho na kuanzisha mashamba makubwa ya uzalishaji ambayo yatatufanya tuanzishe viwanda vingi  vya ubanguaji, ikiwa ni pamoja na vile vya kuchakata mabibo na kuzalisha bidhaa mbalimbali. Mfano mzuri wa kuigwa ni Mkoa wa Singida, ambapo Halmashauri ya Manyoni  imeanzisha shamba  la korosho hekari 12,000 kwa mpango wa bega kwa bega nina hakika  korosho itawafikisha mbali Watanzania  na ni zao la kujivunia”, ameeleza Dkt. Kapinga.

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